Kamis, 03 Januari 2013

Personal Pronouns and Possessive Pronouns

andrens

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent specific people or things. We use them depending on:
  • number: singular (eg: I) or plural (eg: we)
  • person: 1st person (eg: I), 2nd person (eg: you) or 3rd person (eg: he)
  • gender: male (eg: he), female (eg: she) or neuter (eg: it)
  • case: subject (eg: we) or object (eg: us)
We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about. My name is Josef but when I am talking about myself I almost always use "I" or "me", not "Josef". When I am talking direct to you, I almost always use "you", not your name. When I am talking about another person, say John, I may start with "John" but then use "he" or "him". And so on.
Here are the personal pronouns, followed by some example sentences:
numberpersongenderpersonal pronouns
subjectobject
singular1stmale/femaleIme
2ndmale/femaleyouyou
3rdmalehehim
femalesheher
neuteritit
plural1stmale/femaleweus
2ndmale/femaleyouyou
3rdmale/female/neutertheythem
Examples (in each case, the first example shows a subject pronoun, the second an object pronoun):
  • I like coffee.
  • John helped me.
  • Do you like coffee?
  • John loves you.
  • He runs fast.
  • Did Ram beat him?
  • She is clever.
  • Does Mary know her?
  • It doesn't work.
  • Can the engineer repair it?
  • We went home.
  • Anthony drove us.
  • Do you need a table for three?
  • Did John and Mary beat you at doubles?
  • They played doubles.
  • John and Mary beat them.
When we are talking about a single thing, we almost always use it. However, there are a few exceptions. We may sometimes refer to an animal as he/him or she/her, especially if the animal is domesticated or a pet. Ships (and some other vessels or vehicles) as well as some countries are often treated as female and referred to as she/her. Here are some examples:
  • This is our dog Rusty. He's an Alsatian.
  • The Titanic was a great ship but she sank on her first voyage.
  • My first car was a Mini and I treated her like my wife.
  • Thailand has now opened her border with Cambodia.
For a single person, sometimes we don't know whether to use he or she. There are several solutions to this:
  • If a teacher needs help, he or she should see the principal.
  • If a teacher needs help, he should see the principal.
  • If a teacher needs help, they should see the principal.
We often use it to introduce a remark:
  • It is nice to have a holiday sometimes.
  • It is important to dress well.
  • It's difficult to find a job.
  • Is it normal to see them together?
  • It didn't take long to walk here.
We also often use it to talk about the weather, temperature, time and distance:
  • It's raining.
  • It will probably be hot tomorrow.
  • Is it nine o'clock yet?
  • It's 50 kilometres from here to Cambridge. 

Pengertian Personal Pronoun

Personal pronoun adalah kata ganti yang digunakan untuk orang, hewan, benda, atau hal secara spesifik. Bentuk kata ganti ini tergantung pada peran (subject, object, possessive), jumlah, orang ke-, dan gender dari noun yang digantikan.

Perubahan Bentuk pada Personal Pronoun

Berbeda dengan noun yang memiliki bentuk yang sama ketika berfungsi sebagai subject maupun object dan penambahan apostrophe ketika berfungsi sebagai possessive, perubahan pada kata ganti ini mengacu pada beberapa parameter, yaitu:
  • case (subjective, objective, & possessive)
  • number (singular & plural)
  • person (first, second, & third)
  • gender (female, male, & neutral)

Perubahan bentuk pada kata ganti ini dapat dilihat pada tabel sebagai berikut.
Number Person Case
Subjective Objective Possessive
Singular 1st I me mine
2nd you you yours
3rd she, he, it her, him, it hers, his, its
Plural 1st we us ours
2nd you you yours
3rd they them theirs

Subjective, Objective, & Possessive Personal Pronoun

Personal pronoun dapat berfungsi sebagai subjectobject, maupun possessive (parameter case). Penjelasan peran dan beberapa contoh personal pronoun dalam kalimat adalah sebagai berikut.
Peran Detail Contoh Personal Pronoun dalam Kalimat
Subjective personal pronoun
(I, you, they, we, she, he, it)
Berarti kata ganti ini berfungsi sebagai subject He is a politician.
(Dia adalah politisi.)
It is the most delicious cake that I have ever eaten.
(Ini kue terlezat yang saya pernah makan.)
Objective personal pronoun
(me, you, us, them, her, him, it)
Berarti kata ganti ini berfungsi sebagai:
object of a verb,
object of a compound verb,
object of a preposition, atau
object of infinitive phrase
object of a verb:
He borrowed me two interesting book.
(Dia meminjami saya dua buku yang menarik.)
object of a compound verb:
None understands why the man really loves her.
(Tak satupun mengerti kenapa pria tersebut mencintai dia.)
object of a preposition:
If only he shared his problem with me.
(Seandainya dia membagi masalahnya kepada saya.)
object of infinitive phrase:
Everybody is enthusiastic to help her.
(Setiap orang antusias membantunya.)
Possessive personal pronoun
(mine, your(s), our(s), their(s), her(s), his, its)
Berarti kata ganti ini berfungsi untuk menunjukkan siapa yang memiliki sesuatu dengan menempati posisi sebagai:subject of a sentence,
subject complement
subject of a sentence:
Yours was sent yesterday.
(Milikmu dikirim kemarin),
Mine is the biggest one.
(Punyaku yang terbesar.)
subject complement:
The red and black car is his.
(Mobil merah-hitam tsb milik dia.),
That is ours.
(Itu punya kita.)

Posisi Personal Pronoun sebagai 1st, 2nd, & 3rd Person

Personal pronoun dapat menempati posisi sebagai 1st person2nd person, atau 3rd person (parameter person). Penjelasan dan beberapa contoh personal pronoun dalam kalimat adalah sebagai berikut.
Fungsi Keterangan Contoh Personal Pronoun dalam Kalimat
1st person (orang pertama)
(I, me, we, us)
Ketika sedang berbicara sebagai orang pertama (diri sendiri), kita dapat menggunakan kata ganti daripada menggunakan namanya. I would be very happy if you borrow me a little money.
(Saya akan sangat senang jika kamu meminjami saya sedikit uang.)
We‘re looking for a philanthropist to support us.
(Kami sedang mencari seorang dermawan untuk mendukung kami.)
2nd person (orang kedua)
(you)
Ketika sedang berbicara dengan orang lain (bertindak sebagai orang kedua), kita dapat menggunakan kata ganti untuk orang kedua daripada menyebut nama aslinya. You shouldn’t put yours anywhere.
(Kamu tidak seharnya meletakkan milikmu dimana-mana.)
I will help you to get yours.
(Saya akan membantumu mendapatkan milikmu.)
3rd person (orang ketiga)
(she, he, it, her, him, it, they, them)
Ketika sedang membicarakan orang lain (orang lain bertindak sebagai orang ketiga), kita dapat menyebut namanya pada permulaan pembicaraan, selanjutnya diganti dengan kata ganti orang ketiga. Ferdi is a generous man. He always sets aside his salary for the poor and visit the orphanage. Everybody likes him.
(Ferdi adalah orang yang pemurah. Dia selalu menyisihkan gajinya untuk orang miskin dan mengunjungi panti asuhan. Setiap orang menyukainya.)

Appositive & Personal Pronoun

Personal Pronoun dapat digunakan pada appositive. Jika appositive menerangkan subject, kata ganti yang digunakan adalah subjective personal pronoun (I, you, they, we, she, he, it). Sebaliknya jika appositive menerangkan object, maka kata ganti yang digunakan adalah objective personal pronoun (me, you, us, them, her, him, it).

Contoh Appositive & Personal Pronoun:

  • The team, Atiek and I, got the appreciation for our recent research about nuclear. [The team= subject; Atiek and I= appositive; I= subjective pp]
  • Diana invited her best friend,
    Vina and me, to her wedding party. [her best friend= object; Vina and me= appositive; me= objective pp]

Catatan:

Formula yang sopan menempatkan kata ganti ini (subjective & objective) setelah nama orang lain (Atiek and I, Vina and me).
Semoga bermanfaat dan mohon maaf jika ada kekurangan. Jika ada pertanyaan, komentar, atau masukan, kamu dapat meninggalkannya pada kotak komentar di bawah :).

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns adalah kata ganti yang menunjukkan kepemilikan atas suatu benda. Kata-kata yang biasa digunakan adalah mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.
We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the "antecedent") belonging to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or thing/things).
We use possessive pronouns depending on:
  • number: singular (eg: mine) or plural (eg: ours)
  • person: 1st person (eg: mine), 2nd person (eg: yours) or 3rd person (eg: his)
  • gender: male (his), female (hers)
Below are the possessive pronouns, followed by some example sentences. Notice that each possessive pronoun can:
  • be subject or object
  • refer to a singular or plural antecedent
numberpersongender (of "owner") possessive pronouns
singular1stmale/femalemine
2ndmale/femaleyours
3rdmalehis
femalehers
plural1stmale/femaleours
2ndmale/femaleyours
3rdmale/female/neutertheirs
  • Look at these pictures. Mine is the big one. (subject = My picture)
  • I like your flowers. Do you like mine? (object = my flowers)
  • I looked everywhere for your key. I found John's key but I couldn't find yours. (object = your key)
  • My flowers are dying. Yours are lovely. (subject = Your flowers)
  • All the essays were good but his was the best. (subject = his essay)
  • John found his passport but Mary couldn't find hers. (object = her passport)
  • John found his clothes but Mary couldn't find hers. (object = her clothes)
  • Here is your car. Ours is over there, where we left it. (subject = Our car)
  • Your photos are good. Ours are terrible. (subject = Our photos)
  • Each couple's books are colour-coded. Yours are red. (subject = Your books)
  • I don't like this family's garden but I like yours. (subject = your garden)
  • These aren't John and Mary's children. Theirs have black hair. (subject = Their children)
  • John and Mary don't like your car. Do you like theirs? (object = their car) 

Examples of Possessive Pronouns 

Before you see some examples of possessive pronouns, its important that you have the list. There are all the possessive pronouns. Notice that only one of them uses an apostrophe. Possessive pronouns are: my, mine, our, ours, its, his, her, hers, their, theirs, your, yours, whose, and one’s. A pronoun is possessive because it shows ownership. Here are some examples of possessive pronouns in sentences:
  • I saw her book on your table.
  • His hair is longer than hers.
  • My dog is better than their dog.
  • The kids are yours, mine, and ours.
  • Whose book is on our desk?
  • One’s treasure is special.
  • The house is theirs and its paint is flaking.
One thing that can be confusing is the use of possessive pronouns within gerunds.  Look at this sentence: I couldn’t take him griping anymore.
What couldn’t I take anymore, “him” or the “griping”? The sentence is ambiguous.  The correct way is to use a possessive pronoun. Here is the correct sentence: I couldn’t take his griping anymore.
A few more examples like this are:
  • Your taking the prize was a nice surprise.
  • The children make their beds without my asking them to.
  • Their singing inspired us.

Possessive Pronoun Quiz

Here is a quiz on possessive pronouns. Pick the correct pronoun.The answers are at the end of the quiz. 
  1. Sewing is a hobby of (mine, my).
  2. You can’t have (you, your) cake and eat it too.
  3. We bought it together, so it is (our, ours).
  4. I need to find out (who’s, whose) wallet this is.
  5. (Your, You) getting a promotion is impressive.
  6. (My, mine) life is in (your, yours) hands.
  7. During (their, there) test, the kids were nervous.
  8. Asking (one’s, ones) permission is polite.